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Sweden, for its part, was almost as rich in copper as it was in iron, and by the 17th century, with Dutch capital and technical assistance, it was the most important supplier to international markets. There was a great demand for wood, for the construction of buildings and ships, for metallurgy and, most importantly, for domestic heating. Timber shortages in more developed parts of Europe were primarily responsible for the integration of Norway and Sweden into the Western European economy, both directly and indirectly (ie through demand for metals). This shortage became so great that it affected not only the Baltic area, but, in the 17th and 18th centuries, North America as well. Which would lead to the search for alternative materials and fuels: brick and stone for construction, peat and coal for fuel. Also iron and other metals replaced wood; However, the growth in demand for the former only intensified their scarcity. England was among the worst affected countries. Some forests were reserved for the royal navy, but more important, even, was the increased demand for fuel. Coal had been mined in Germany and the Netherlands, as well as in England, throughout the Middle Ages. Despite its noxious characteristics and frequent laws prohibiting its use, “sea coal” from the banks of the River Tyne estuary had become the most common household fuel in London by the 16th century. Little by little

It was penetrating industries with high fuel consumption, salt refining, glass, brick and tile production, copper smelting, malt and beer production, and various chemical industries. During the 17th century, attempts were made several times to incorporate it into the smelting of iron as a substitute for charcoal, but the various impurities (mainly sulfur) in raw stone charcoal gave the iron undesirable characteristics. Even so, the demand for coal from other industries continued to increase. The production of English industry grew from about 200,000 tons per year in the middle of the 16th century to 3,000,000 tons in the late 17th century. As the industry grew, the coal from the river banks was no longer sufficient to meet demand.

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